The Battle of the Somme - The 12 Battles of the Somme (1 July - 18 November, 1916) - CWGC

The reasons for the failure of the 12 October attack were summarised by the Official History: "The enemy, doubtless warned by the bombardment and by now accustomed to afternoon attacks, had been found ready and alert on 12 October. The British battalions showed admirable powers of endurance but were woefully weak in numbers - (at this time few battalions in the Fourth Army could muster more than 400 men for an attack) - with many half-trained men in the ranks. Assistance from the air (so much relied on in counter-battery work in locating new German positions and in reporting the progress of an attack, had been severely limited by poor visibility). Moreover many German machine guns now appeared to be sited father back in well concealed positions from which they swept with deadly effect the zone of the assault." 'Military Operations. France and Belgium, 1916', Captain Wilfrid Miles, 1938 (pp.442-443).

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